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1. A certain type of specialized cell contains an unusually large amount of rough endoplasmicreticulum .Which of the following functions is this cell type most likely specialized to perform?

A The production and secretion of steroids

B The destruction of toxic materials produced in other cells of the organism

C The synthesis of polysaccharides for energy storage

D The production and secretion of proteins

2. A group of mutations, known as , have been identified in mitochondrial . Thesemutations are associated with a number of debilitating diseases stemming from the production ofnonfunctional proteins in the mitochondria.Which of the following cellular deficiencies would most likely be related to these mutations?

A The cell is unable to synthesize most proteins required for normal cell functions.

BThe cell is unable to break down toxic materials and would accumulate large volumes of thesematerials.

CThe cell is able to synthesize proteins, but the proteins would not fold properly and would notcontain the correct molecular tags for export from the cell.

D The cell is unable to complete reactions related to electron transport and production.

3. A scientist is studying the various prokaryotic and eukaryotic species found floating in a sample ofwater taken from a marine ecosystem.Which cellular component will be found in the widest range of organisms in the sample?

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A The chloroplast, since all organisms need a source of energy.

B The ribosome, since all organisms need to synthesize proteins.

C The mitochondrion, since all organisms need to break down glucose.

D The cell wall, since all marine organisms need them for support.

4. In an experiment, researchers provided a radiolabeled amino acid to living plant cells. After onehour, the researchers determined the amount of the radiolabeled amino acid that was in each ofseveral subcellular compartments. The results of the experiment are represented in the table.RELATIVE AMOUNTS OF RADIOLABELED AMINO ACID

Nucleus Mitochondria Endoplasmic Reticulum Cytosol

2.1 2.7 1.9 1

Which of the following conclusions about the radiolabeled amino acid is bestsupported by the results of the experiment?

A It was mostly incorporated into nucleic acids that store the biological information.

B It was mostly incorporated into proteins that regulate and manage metabolic reactions.

C It was mostly incorporated into lipids that help separate cells from their surrounding environment.

D It was mostly incorporated into carbohydrates that form protective structures outside the cells.

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5. Researchers conducted an experiment to investigate the effects of a valinomycin treatment onskeletal muscle cells. Valinomycin is a naturally occurring substance that can be used as a drug.The results of the experiment are presented in the table.

Relative Rates of Production

Time after Treatment Untreated Cells Valinomycin-Treated Cells

5 minutes 1.0 0.3

10 minutes 7.7 2.7Which of the following claims about the effects of the valinomycin treatment is best supported bythe data presented in the table?

A The valinomycin treatment caused an increase in the activity of the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

B The valinomycin treatment caused an increase in the activity of the Golgi complex.

C The valinomycin treatment caused a decrease in the activity of the lysosome.

D The valinomycin treatment caused a decrease in the activity of the mitochondria.

6. In an experiment, researchers compared the growth of two different plants, plant and plant .The researchers maintained the plants under nearly identical conditions and observed that plant grew faster than plant . The researchers also observed that the inner mitochondrial membranesof plant had more folds than did those of plant .Which of the following conclusions about increasing the number of folds in the inner mitochondrialmembrane is best supported by the results of the experiment?

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A It increases the efficiency of photosynthesis, which results in faster cell growth.

B It increases the surface area available for production, which results in faster cell growth.

CIt increases the amount of space available for storing cellular wastes, which results in faster cellgrowth.

DIt increases the rate of protein transport to the plasma membrane, which results in faster cellgrowth.

7. Some cells, such as intestinal cells, exchange a lot of material with their surroundings. The surface-to-volume ratio of these cells affects the efficiency of material exchange.The table provides measurements of four different eukaryotic cells.

Cell 1 2 3 4

To ta l su r face a rea40 60 80 100

Total volume 20 10 30 20Based on the data, which cell is likely to be most effective in the exchange of materials?

A Cell

B Cell

C Cell

D Cell

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8. Hereditary spherocytosis is a disorder of red blood cells that causes the cells to be smallerand spherical instead of having the usual flattened, biconcave shape. The average diameter ofnormal red blood cells is , and the average diameter of red blood cells in a person with was found to be . The normal red blood cell has an average surface area of and anaverage volume of .Which of the following provides an accurate calculation of the surface area to volume ratio of an red blood cell, as well as a prediction of its effect on the efficient transferring of oxygen comparedto a normal red blood cell?

A The ratio is , and the cells are more efficient at transferring oxygen.

B The ratio is , and the cells are less efficient at transferring oxygen.

C The ratio is , and the cells are less efficient at transferring oxygen.

D The ratio is , and the cells are more efficient at transferring oxygen.

9. Stomata are pores on the surfaces of the leaves and stems of plants that regulate gas exchangebetween the plants and the atmosphere.Researchers found that the stomata density on the leaves of a species of plant change as theconcentration of in the atmosphere changes. When grown at 350 the plant has anaverage density of 300 stomata per , but when grown at 400 the plant has anaverage density of 250 stomata per .Which of the following best describes how the ratio of the density of stomata (stomata per )per concentration ( ) changes as the concentration increases?

AThe ratio decreases from to , because fewer stomata are needed at higher concentrations.

BThe ratio decreases from to , because fewer stomata are needed at higher concentrations.

CThe ratio increases from to , because more stomata are needed at higher concentrations.

DThe ratio increases from to , because more stomata are needed at higher concentrations.

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10. Figure 1. Testosterone movement across the cellular membrane

Testosterone is a small steroid hormone that is important in cell signaling. Which of the followingindicates where testosterone enters a cell and why it is able to cross at that point?

A 1, because testosterone is nonpolar and can diffuse through the membrane.

B 2, because testosterone covalently binds to a surface protein and transports into the cell.

C 3, because testosterone dissolves in water and flows through the channel.

D4, because testosterone is filtered out of the extracellular fluid and taken into the cell byendocytosis.

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11. The figure shows a representation of a protein embedded in a cell membrane. The numbersindicate different structural regions of the protein.

Based on the figure, which of the following statements best describes the relationship betweenregions 1 and 2 of the protein?

ARegion 1 is hydrophilic because it interacts with the interior of the membrane, whereas region 2 ishydrophobic because it interacts with an aqueous environment.

BRegion 1 is hydrophilic because it interacts with an aqueous environment, whereas region 2 ishydrophobic because it interacts with the interior of the membrane.

CRegion 1 is hydrophobic because it interacts with the interior of the membrane, whereas region 2 ishydrophilic because it interacts with an aqueous environment.

DRegion 1 is hydrophobic because it interacts with an aqueous environment, whereas region 2 ishydrophilic because it interacts with the interior of the membrane.

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12. Cholesterol is a naturally occurring substance that helps regulate the fluidity of a cell’s plasmamembrane. A cholesterol molecule can be represented as having a polar head and a nonpolarregion, as shown in the figure.

Which of the following models shows how cholesterol molecules most likely interact with thephospholipid bilayer of a cell’s plasma membrane?

A

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B

C

D

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13. Intravenous therapy is used for fluid replacement in instances of dehydration in humans andother animals. One type of fluid is essentially a saltwater solution. To determine the bestconcentration for therapy in people, a team of students is researching the effects of solutions ofdifferent salt concentrations on red blood cells. The following observations were made from threedifferent red blood cell samples viewed under a microscope.

Saline (Cells swell) Saline (Cells unchanged) Saline (Cells shrink)The team wants to extend the research project. What should the team of students do next to obtaindata that are more conclusive?

A Repeat the process with other salt concentrations.

B Develop a model to explain why the cells react differently to different salt concentrations.

C Repeat the process using red blood cells from other animals.

DDevelop an experimental procedure that uses a stain that makes the organelles of red blood cellsmore visible.

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14. Certain bacteria can use both ethyl alcohol and acetate as sources of nutrients. In an experimentwhere both nutrients are available to a bacterial population, the following results were obtained andgraphed.

What additional procedure would best help determine whether these movements are due to activetransport or to passive transport?

ARepeat the original experiment, but at three different temperatures. Compare the transport ratesamong the three temperatures.

BRepeat the original experiment, but add a substance known to block movement of molecules acrossaquaporins. Compare the rates on the two graphs.

CUse two additional treatments, one containing only ethyl alcohol and one containing only acetate.Compare the graphs of these two treatments with the original graph.

D

Use two additional treatments, one containing only ethyl alcohol and one containing only acetate.Include a substance known to block use by the plasma membrane. Compare the graphs ofthese two treatments to the original graph.

15. Researchers investigate the transport of a certain protein into cells by endocytosis. In anexperiment, the researchers incubate the cells in the presence of the protein and measure theamount of the protein that is absorbed into the cells over a five-minute period.Based on their observations, what should the researchers do to further clarify how the availability ofthe protein outside the cells affects the rate of endocytosis of the protein?

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A Incubate the cells in the absence of the protein.

B Incubate the cells in the presence of several different proteins.

C Incubate the cells in the presence of several different concentrations of the protein.

D Incubate the cells in the presence of the protein for several different lengths of time.

16. Lysosomes digest food particles brought into a cell by endocytosis. After a vesicle containing foodparticles fuses with a lysosome, ions are transported into the lysosome from the cytosol. Thissignificantly lowers the of the lysosome relative to the cytosol and activates the enzymes thatdigest the particles.Which of the following best predicts what will happen to the lysosomal enzymes if the proteins thattransport ions from the cytosol into the lysosome are damaged?

A The lysosomal enzymes will not become active, since there will be no active transport of ions.

B The lysosomal enzymes will not become active, since ions will diffuse out of the lysosome.

CThe lysosomal enzymes will become active, since facilitated diffusion will move ions into thelysosome.

DThe lysosomal enzymes will become active, since passive diffusion will move ions into thelysosome.

17. Which of the following transport mechanisms will be affected most directly by a temporary shortageof molecules inside the cell?

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A The movement of water molecules through aquaporins

B The diffusion of oxygen molecules across the plasma membrane

C The transport of glucose molecules against a concentration gradient

D The facilitated diffusion of ions into the cell

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18. Some membrane proteins help maintain the concentrations of ions inside a cell by transporting theions across the cell’s plasma membrane. Other membrane proteins form pores in the plasmamembrane through which the ions can diffuse. A model showing the influence of membraneproteins on the movement of sodium ( ) and potassium ( ) ions across a plasma membraneis presented in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Section of a cell’s plasma membrane, showing ion concentrations and membraneproteinsBased on the model presented in Figure 1, which of the following changes will most likely resultfrom a depletion of available stores inside the cell?

A The concentration outside the cell will increase.

B The concentration inside the cell will increase.

C The concentration inside the cell will increase.

D The concentration outside the cell will decrease.

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19. A study was conducted to understand the factors controlling the rate at which molecules or ionstravel across cell membranes. An artificial membrane was created that was composed of aphospholipid bilayer only. The speed at which various substances crossed this membrane wasmeasured.Some substances can pass through an actual cell membrane much faster than they passedthrough the artificial membrane in this study. Which of the following statements best explains thisfinding?

A Actual cell membranes have a much thicker phospholipid bilayer than the artificial membrane does.

BActual cell membranes have a variety of proteins embedded in the membrane that are absent in theartificial membrane.

CHydrophobic substances spend more time between the two layers of phospholipid in the artificialmembrane than they do between the layers in an actual membrane.

D

Hydrophilic substances spend more time attached to the polar region of the phospholipids in theartificial membrane than they do attached to the polar region of the phospholipids in an actualmembrane.

20. A magnesium sulfate solution taken orally can cause a net movement of water into the largeintestine, which results from water molecules diffusing through aquaporins embedded in the cells ofthe intestinal lining.By which of the following mechanisms do the water molecules most likely move into the largeintestine?

A By passive transport from an area of low osmolarity to an area of high osmolarity

B By passive transport from an area of high osmolarity to an area of low osmolarity

C By active transport from an area of low osmolarity to an area of high osmolarity

D By active transport from an area of high osmolarity to an area of low osmolarity

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21. Aldosterone (a steroid hormone) is a small, nonpolar, hydrophobic molecule that enters a targetcell by moving across the plasma membrane, down a concentration gradient.Based on the information presented, how does aldosterone most likely enter target cells?

A By simple diffusion

B By facilitated diffusion

C By active transport

D By endocytosis

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22.

Figure 1A student is using dialysis bags to model the effects of changing solute concentrations on cells.The student places one dialysis bag that contains of distilled water into each of two beakersthat are filled with of distilled water. (Figure 1). The membrane of each dialysis bagmembrane contains pores that allow small solutes such as monoatomic ions to pass through butare too small for anything larger to pass. After 30 minutes, of a concentrated solution ofalbumin (a medium-sized, water-soluble protein) is added to one of the two beakers. Nothing isadded to the other beaker. After two more hours at room temperature, the mass of each bag isdetermined. There is no change in the mass of the dialysis bag in the beaker to which no albuminwas added.Which of the graphs below best represents the predicted change in mass over time of the dialysisbag in the beaker to which albumin was added?

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A

B

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C

D

23. Some viral infections can lead to the rupture of the lysosome membrane. Which prediction of theeffect of this disruption of cellular compartmentalization is most likely correct?

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A Enzymes will be released that will specifically target the virus.

B Cellular osmotic concentrations will change, preventing viral entry into the cell.

C Hydrolytic enzymes will be released, which will cause cell death.

DIntracellular digestion of organic materials will increase, which will increase the energy available tothe cell for fighting the virus.

24. Gaucher disease is an inherited disorder in which cells of the body are unable to break down aparticular type of lipid, resulting in a buildup of the lipid in some tissues and organs.Based on the information provided, Gaucher disease results most directly from a defect in thefunction of which of the following organelles?

A The smooth endoplasmic reticulum

B The nucleus

C The lysosome

D The mitochondrion

25. Researchers have proposed a model of chloroplast evolution. According to the model, chloroplastsevolved from a small prokaryotic organism that was engulfed by an ancestral eukaryote. Theengulfed prokaryote then formed an endosymbiotic relationship with the eukaryotic host.Which of the following observations best supports the model?

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A Chloroplasts are separated from other subcellular compartments by semipermeable membranes.

B Prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms both acquire nutrients from the surrounding environment.

C Eukaryotes evolved after prokaryotes and have more complex structures.

D Chloroplasts and some prokaryotes share similar photosynthetic reactions.

26. Which of the following observations best supports the claim that mitochondria evolved from once-free-living prokaryotic cells by the process of endocytosis?

A Mitochondria produce .

B Mitochondria contain proteins.

C Mitochondria exchange substances with the cytosol.

D Mitochondria are surrounded by a double membrane.

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27. Euglenids are single-cell eukaryotes that live in aquatic environments. The chloroplasts foundinside euglenids are enveloped by three membranes, as represented in Figure 1. The innermembrane of euglenid chloroplasts resembles the thylakoid membrane.

Figure 1. Simplified diagram of a euglenid, showing the structure of the chloroplast envelopeWhich of the following claims about the origin of the euglenid chloroplast is best supported by thethree-membrane structure of the envelope?

AIt originated from the spontaneous assembly of organic molecules into a lipid bilayer inside a free-living prokaryote.

BIt originated from the fusion of the plasma membranes of two different free-living photosyntheticprokaryotes.

CIt originated from the incorporation of a photosynthetic prokaryote into a eukaryotic cell by a singleendosymbiotic event.

DIt originated from the incorporation of a photosynthetic prokaryote into a eukaryotic cell by twoendosymbiotic events.

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28. Beetroot cells contain a family of dark red pigments called betalains. The selectively permeablenature of the beetroot cells keeps the internal environment of the cell separate from the externalenvironment of the cell. Researchers are interested in determining whether the selectivepermeability of beetroot cells is due to the cell membrane or if it is due to the cell wall.Exposure to cellulase is known to damage the structure of the cell wall. An experiment is set up inwhich beetroot cells are placed in an aqueous solution with cellulase and in one without cellulase.Which of the following results best refutes the alternative hypothesis that selective permeability is aconsequence of the cell wall?

A When beetroot cells are placed in a solution with cellulase, the solution turns dark red.

B When beetroot cells are placed in a solution with cellulase, the solution remains clear.

C When beetroot cells are placed in a solution, it turns dark red with or without cellulase present.

D Since plant cells contain cell membranes, not cell walls, the alternate hypothesis cannot be tested.

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29. Two competing hypotheses exist regarding the cell membrane structure. One hypothesis statesthat membrane structure is static and membrane components throughout the bilayer are rigidlybound. Alternatively, the other hypothesis states that cell membranes are a fluid mosaic in whichmembrane components may drift within the bilayer around the surface of the cell. An experiment isset up in which membrane proteins of two different cells are fluorescently labeled with two differentcolors and then fused as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Model of initiation of cell fusion experimentWhich of the following results, one hour after membrane fusion, best supports the alternativehypothesis that the cell membrane is a fluid mosaic?

A

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B

C

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D

30. The cell membrane is selectively permeable due to its structure. Thus, the internal environment ofthe cell is distinct from the external environment of the cell. One biologist hypothesizes that smallnonpolar molecules readily pass through the membrane. Another biologist alternativelyhypothesizes that these types of molecules require channel and transport proteins that areembedded in the membrane in order to move across the membrane.Which of the following data would best refute this alternative hypothesis?

AEthanol is found in the cytosol of cells when they are briefly exposed to a ten percent ethanolsolution.

B Cells become oxygen deficient when membrane protein activity is blocked.

C and movement in and out of cells is unaffected when membrane protein activity is blocked.

D Sodium ions cannot move across the cell membrane when membrane protein activity is blocked.

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FAQs

What does the simile in lines 21 through 22 like subtitles primarily serve to illustrate? ›

The simile in lines 21-22 illustrate "how crucial the word "like" is to people's ability to communicate with each other". A simile is a type of figure of speech in which one thing is compared to another using "like" or "as". A simile is similar to a metaphor but not the same.

What if the mass of block B is 2kg? ›

If the mass of block B is 2 kg, the gravitational force exerted on block B is most nearly which of the following? reasoning: The gravitational force is the product of mass and the acceleration due to gravity. 2kg2kg times 10N/kg10N/kg gives a force of 20N20N.

What is the metaphor of endangered hatchlings in lines 26 27? ›

Reasoning: The metaphor of "endangered hatchlings" suggests that the word "like" has taken the place of more important words and thus puts them in peril of elimination, as an "endangered hatchling" would be in danger of extinction.

What was the trend from 1660 to 1710? ›

Final answer: Based on the 1660 to 1710 timeframe and the given options, the most likely trend indicated would be the rise of the trans-Atlantic trade of enslaved Africans. The Anglicization of British colonies and conflicts with Native Americans were present but didn't represent a clear trend like the slave trade did.

What are similes in the story all summer in a day? ›

Answer and Explanation:

Some similes in the Ray Bradbury short story 'All Summer in a Day' are: ''The children pressed to each other like so many roses, so many weeds, intermixed, peering out for a look at the hidden sun.

What does a block of mass 2kg initially at rest move under? ›

A block of mass 2 kg initially at rest moves under the action of an applied horizontal force of 6 N on a rough horizontal surface. The coefficient of friction between block and surface is 0.1. The work done by the applied force in 10 s is (Take g=10ms−2)

Is 2kg a mass? ›

Answer. Explanation: Mass is the quantity of matter in a certain object. WHEREVER you take a 2kg object, the mass will remain 2kg.

What is the normal reaction between 2 kg block and 3 kg block if they are kept in equilibrium? ›

Force of normal reaction applied by the 2 kg block on the 3 kg block is 16 N.

Is for the birds figurative language? ›

The phrase "for the birds" is an idiomatic expression in English, and its meaning is typically used to convey that something is worthless, insignificant, or not worth considering.

What figure of speech is a sea of foliage? ›

1. Metaphor: "A sea of foliage" - Here, the poet compares the dense mass of foliage to a sea, suggesting its vastness and abundance. 2. Personification: "illustrate the Same" - The foliage is personified, as it is given the ability to illustrate or depict something, implying that it can convey a message or meaning.

What is the ground in metaphor? ›

The “ground” is the thing or things that the vehicle and tenor have in common. In other words, the ground in what enables the metaphor to work—to make sense.

What was America like in 1660? ›

English America had four times as many people in 1660 as it did in 1642. It now produced crops like sugar, had one colony with as many slaves as Englishmen, was held together by English trade networks, and had lost its autonomy to a mother country with an increasingly centralized government and imperial vision.

How did changes in England between 1660 and 1690 reshape its American empire? ›

81) Identify three new developments between 1660 and 1690 that helped shape England's American Empire. Three new developments in this period include expanding colonies, closer imperial control, and the rise of constitutional monarchy.

What was the first navigation act? ›

In 1651, the British Parliament, in the first of what became known as the Navigation Acts, declared that only English ships would be allowed to bring goods into England, and that the North American colonies could only export its commodities, such as tobacco and sugar, to England.

What is the purpose of the simile in this description? ›

A simile helps your reader or listener visualise, understand and have a better conception of the quality of the nouns being compared. It makes it a lot more vivid and descriptive. In other words, it can be said that similes can be used to provide a mental image to your reader or listener.

What is an illustration of a simile? ›

Life is like a box of chocolates: you never know which one you're going to get. Let's use this example to understand what a simile is: A simile is a phrase that uses a comparison to describe. For example, “life” can be described as similar to “a box of chocolates.”

What is the simile in the poem? ›

Share: Simile is common poetic device. The subject of the poem is described by comparing it to another object or subject, using 'as' or 'like'. For example, the subject may be 'creeping as quietly as a mouse' or be 'sly, like a fox.

What does simile mean in a passage? ›

Revised on October 26, 2023. A simile is a rhetorical device used to compare two things using the words “like,” “as,” or “than.” Similes can be used to create vivid imagery or to draw surprising connections between two unrelated things.

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